Neuropathy

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What Is Neuropathy?

Neuropathy, neuro- which means "nervous system" and -pathy which means "disease of" occurs when there is damage to the nerves. Any condition that causes damage to the nerves. The nervous system is made up of all the nerve cells, also known as neurons, in the body. The nervous system consists of two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The nerves of the central nervous system receive information from the ears, eyes, nose, and mouth, as well as from the rest of the body from the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. The nerves of the peripheral nervous system transmit messages from the body to the central nervous system.

The peripheral nerves regulate a large range of functions throughout the body, including voluntary functions, which is called the somatic nervous system, and involuntary functions, which is called the autonomic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system (SNS) is a division of the PNS that includes all of the voluntary efferent neurons. The SNS is the only consciously controlled part of the PNS and is responsible for stimulating skeletal muscles in the body.

muscle movement, which are called motor nerves, involuntary organ activity, which are called autonomic nerves, and the perception of stimuli, which are called sensory nerves. When there is damage to the nerves of the central nervous system, it is called cranial neuropathy and when there is damage to the peripheral nervous system, it is called peripheral neuropathy. In porphyria, neuropathy can accompany an acute attack or it can be chronic. Porphyria-related neuropathy can cause damage to both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, through what is thought to be elevated levels of the chemical aminolevulinic acid.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Neuropathy?

Autonomic nerve damage

 

Damage to the nerves that cause muscles to expand or contract blood vessels can cause difficulty in the body's ability to regulate blood pressure. When the body is having difficulty regulating blood pressure, due to autonomic nerve damage, blood pressure can fluctuate causing blood pressure that may go too high, which is called hypertension in medicine, or it may cause blood pressure to go too low, which is called hypotension in medicine. 

Fluctuating heart rate that may go too high, called tachycardia, or too low called bradycardia. The heart rate can also remain high when at rest.

Damage to the nerves that control stomach muscle contractions can cause difficulty with the stomachs ability to digest food. When the stomach has difficulty with digesting food, the stomach takes longer than normal to empty. gastroparesis

Damage to the nerves that control bladder muscle contractions can lead to peeing too much, peeing too little or urinary incontinence.

 

Damage to the nerves that control intestinal muscle contractions can lead to diarrhea, constipation, or fecal incontinence.

Damage to the nerves that control stomach, or abdominal, muscle contractions can lead to the inability to digest food. This is diagnosed as gastroparesis.

 

Inability to sweat normally, sweating too much or sweating too little.

Motor nerve damage

 

Muscle weakness, muscle paralysis, painful cramps and fasciculations (uncontrolled muscle twitching visible under the skin), muscle atrophy (severe shrinkage of muscle size), and decreased reflexes. Lack of coordination

Sensory nerve damage

Numbness, prickling or tingling in your feet or hands, which can spread upward into your legs and arms

Sharp, jabbing, throbbing, freezing, or burning pain

Smaller sensory fibers without myelin sheaths transmit pain and temperature sensations. Damage to these fibers can interfere with the ability to feel pain or changes in temperature. People may fail to sense that they have been injured from a cut or that a wound is becoming infected. Others may not detect pain that warns of impending heart attack or other acute conditions. 

Hallucinations?

How Is Neuropathy Diagnosed?

Neuropathy is diagnosed...

How Is Neuropathy Treated?

Neuropathy is treated by...

Sources

 

What Is Neuropathy?

Neuropathy, neuro- which means "nervous system" and -pathy which means "disease of" occurs when there is damage to the nerves of the body. The nervous system is made up of all the nerve cells, also known as neurons, in the body. The nervous system consists of two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The nerves of the central nervous system receive information from the ears, eyes, nose, and mouth, as well as from the rest of the body from the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. The nerves of the peripheral nervous system transmit messages from the body to the central nervous system.